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International Geography Olympiad

The International Geography Olympiad is an annual competition for 16- to 19-year-old geography students from all over the world. Students chosen to represent their countries are some of the best, chosen from thousands of students who participate ...

                                               

Exploration

Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery when Eu ...

                                               

List of explorations

                                               

Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration, is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and which was the beginning of gl ...

                                               

Age of Sail

The Age of Sail was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the mid-16th to the mid-19th century.

                                               

Exploration of the Americas

                                               

Botanical expedition

A botanical expedition is a scientific journey or voyage designed to explore the flora of a particular region. The expedition could be specifically designed for exploring the flora, or this could have been a part of studying the natural history o ...

                                               

Casa de Contratacion

The Casa de Contratacion or Casa de la Contratacion de las Indias was established by the Crown of Castile, in 1503 in the port of Seville as a crown agency for the Spanish Empire. It functioned until 1790, when it was abolished in a government re ...

                                               

Challenger expedition

The Challenger expedition of 1872–1876 was a scientific program that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography. The expedition was named after the mother vessel, HMS Challenger. Prompted by Charles Wyville Thomson - of the Unive ...

                                               

Deep-sea exploration

Deep-sea exploration is the investigation of physical, chemical, and biological conditions on the sea bed, for scientific or commercial purposes. Deep-sea exploration is considered a relatively recent human activity compared to the other areas of ...

                                               

Desert exploration

Desert exploration is the deliberate and scientific exploration of deserts, the arid regions of the earth. It is only incidentally concerned with the culture and livelihood of native desert dwellers. The following sections list deserts around the ...

                                               

European and American voyages of scientific exploration

The era of European and American voyages of scientific exploration followed the Age of Discovery and were inspired by a new confidence in science and reason that arose in the Age of Enlightenment. Maritime expeditions in the Age of Discovery were ...

                                               

The Exploration of the Colorado River and Its Canyons

The Exploration of the Colorado River and Its Canyons by John Wesley Powell is a classic of American exploration literature. It is about the Powell Geographic Expedition of 1869 which was the first trip down the Colorado River by boat, including ...

                                               

Hakluyt Society

The Hakluyt Society is a text publication society, founded in 1846 and based in London, England, which publishes scholarly editions of primary records of historic voyages, travels and other geographical material. In addition to its publishing rol ...

                                               

Ice Warrior Project

The Ice Warrior Project is an organisation founded in 2001 by the explorer Jim McNeill. Its remit is to develop people from all walks of life and echelons of society into modern-day explorers; to discover change in the world’s most remote regions ...

                                               

Major explorations after the Age of Discovery

Major explorations of Earth continued after the Age of Discovery. By the early seventeenth century, vessels were sufficiently well built and their navigators competent enough to travel to virtually anywhere on the planet by sea. In the 17th centu ...

                                               

Manhauling

Manhauling or man-hauling is the pulling forward of sledges, trucks or other load-carrying vehicles by human power unaided by animals or machines. The term is used primarily in connection with travel over snow and ice, and was common during Arcti ...

                                               

North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition

The North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition, also known as the Rodgers-Ringgold Expedition was a United States scientific and exploring project from 1853 to 1856. Commander Cadwalader Ringgold 1802–1867 led the expedition until he was re ...

                                               

Exploration of the Pacific

Polynesians reached nearly all the Pacific islands by about 1200 AD, followed by Asian navigation in Southeast Asia and West Pacific. Around the Middle Ages Muslim traders linked the Middle East and East Africa to the Asian Pacific coasts. The di ...

                                               

Polar exploration

Polar exploration is the process of exploration of the polar regions of Earth – the Arctic region and Antarctica – particularly with the goal of reaching the North Pole and South Pole, respectively. Historically, this was accomplished by explorer ...

                                               

Society for the History of Discoveries

Society for the History of Discoveries, founded in 1960, is an international, United States-based, organization formed to stimulate interest in teaching, research, and publishing the history of geographical exploration. Its members include those ...

                                               

Timeline of European exploration

This timeline of European exploration lists major geographic discoveries and other firsts credited to or involving Europeans during the Age of Discovery and the following centuries, between the years AD 1418 and 1957. Despite several significant ...

                                               

Tunnel network

In transport, tunnels can be connected together to form a tunnel network. These can be used in mining to reach ore below ground, in cities for underground rapid transit systems, in sewer systems, in warfare to avoid enemy detection or attacks, as ...

                                               

Valdivia Expedition

The Valdivia Expedition, or Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition, was a scientific expedition organised and funded by the German Empire under Kaiser Wilhelm II and was named after the ship which was bought and outfitted for the expedition, the SS Valdivi ...

                                               

Geocode

A geocode is a code that represents a geographic entity. It is a unique identifier of the entity, to distinguish it from others in a finite set of geographic entities. In general the geocode is a human-readable and short identifier. Typical geoco ...

                                               

Geocoding

Geocoding is the process of taking input text, such as an address or the name of a place, and returning a latitude/longitude location on the Earths surface for that place. Reverse geocoding, on the other hand, converts geographic coordinates to a ...

                                               

003 (UN M.49 code)

                                               

Administrative division codes of the People's Republic of China

Administrative division codes of the Peoples Republic of China identify administrative divisions of the PRC at county level and above. They are published by the National Bureau of Statistics of the Peoples Republic of China with the latest versio ...

                                               

BC Geographical Names

The BC Geographical Names is a geographic name web service and database for the Canadian province of British Columbia run by the Base Mapping and Geomatic Services Branch of the Integrated Land Management Bureau. The database contains official na ...

                                               

C-squares

C-squares is a system of geocodes that provides a basis for simple spatial indexing of geographic features or data. It was devised by Tony Rees of CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research in 2001-2, and described in the literature in 2003. The notat ...

                                               

Chapman code

Chapman codes are a set of 3-letter codes used in genealogy to identify the administrative divisions in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.

                                               

Classification of objects of the administrative-territorial system of Ukraine

Classification of objects of the administrative-territorial system of Ukraine, is a national standardization system established by the State Committee of Ukraine for the Technical Regulations and Consumer Policy on October 31, 1997, #659, and wen ...

                                               

CLLI code

CLLI code is a Common Language Information Services identifier used within the North American telecommunications industry to specify the location and function of telecommunications equipment or of a relevant location such as an international bord ...

                                               

Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia

The Committee for Geographical Names in Australia was formed in Perth, Western Australia in 1984 following the International Cartographic Association Conference. The committee was created from that meeting of the various Australian and New Zealan ...

                                               

Community Identification Number

The Official Municipality Key, formerly also known as the Official Municipality Characteristic Number or Municipality Code Number, is a number sequence for the identification of politically independent municipalities or unincorporated areas. Othe ...

                                               

Country code

Country codes are short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes developed to represent countries and dependent areas, for use in data processing and communications. Several different systems have been developed to do this. The term country code ...

                                               

Federal Geographic Data Committee

Template:4.5:76;?66 l = The Federal Geographic Data Committee is a United States government committee which promotes the coordinated development, use, sharing, and dissemination of geospatial data on a national basis. Its 32 members are represent ...

                                               

Federal Information Processing Standard state code

FIPS state codes were numeric and two-letter alphabetic codes defined in U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard Publication 5-2 to identify U.S. states and certain other associated areas. The standard superseded FIPS PUB 5-1 on May 28, 1987 ...

                                               

Gazetteer of Australia

The Gazetteer of Australia is an index or dictionary of the location and spelling of geographical names across Australia. Geographic names include towns, suburbs and roads, plus geographical features such as hills, rivers, and lakes. The index is ...

                                               

Geo (microformat)

Geo is a microformat used for marking up WGS84 geographical coordinates in HTML. Although termed a "draft" specification, this is a formality, and the format is stable and in widespread use; not least as a sub-set of the published hCalendar and h ...

                                               

Geo URI scheme

The geo URI scheme is a Uniform Resource Identifier scheme defined by the Internet Engineering Task Forces RFC 5870 as: a Uniform Resource Identifier URI for geographic locations using the geo scheme name. A geo URI identifies a physical location ...

                                               

Geo-imputation

In data analysis involving geographical locations, geo-imputation or geographical imputation methods are steps taken to replace missing values for exact locations with approximate locations derived from associated data. They assign a reasonable l ...

                                               

Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and t ...

                                               

Geographic Names Information System

The Geographic Names Information System is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gaze ...

                                               

Geographical Names Board of Canada

The Geographical Names Board of Canada is a national committee with a secretariat in Natural Resources Canada, part of the Government of Canada, which authorizes the names used on official federal government maps of Canada created since 1897. The ...

                                               

Geohash

Geohash is a public domain geocode system invented in 2008 by Gustavo Niemeyer and G.M. Morton, which encodes a geographic location into a short string of letters and digits. It is a hierarchical spatial data structure which subdivides space into ...

                                               

Geohash-36

The Geohash-36 geocode is an opensource compression algorithm for world coordinate data. It was developed as a variation of the OpenPostcode format developed as a candidate geolocation postcode for the Republic of Ireland. It is calculated differ ...

                                               

GeoNames

GeoNames.org is a geographical database available and accessible through various web services, under a Creative Commons attribution license. GeoNames.org differs from the US Governments official GeoNames website, also known as the GEOnet Names Se ...

                                               

GEOnet Names Server

The GEOnet Names Server is a service that provides access to the United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agencys and the US Board on Geographic Namess database of geographic feature names and locations for locations outside the US. The dat ...

                                               

GeoSMS

GeoSMS is a specification for geotagging SMS messages. It works by embedding locations in the message text, where the locations are formatted as geo URIs as defined in RFC 5870. It was developed in 2010 by Matthew Kwan, a PhD Candidate at the RMI ...

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